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General information

 Introduction to the Ferghana region


    The territory of the region occupies mainly the flat part of the Ferghana economic district and the foothills of the Alai and Turkestan ranges. The plains lower as you move to the West and center of the valley. Meet here the sandy and marshy land (Karakalpak steppe Dankosky and Sarysu basin).Fergana

          The climate of the Ferghana region differs from that of the neighboring Andijan region with cold winters, shorter growing seasons, and sharper temperature fluctuations. Summers here are hot and dry, in the West of the region precipitation falls no more than 100 mm per year, frequent dry rains (garmsil) dry up the soil.


Forests and thickets of shrubs in floodplains and mountains help the soil retain moisture, and in the foothills - protect the slopes from erosion by mudflows.

The Isfayram, Shakhimardan, Sokh and Isfara rivers are of great importance in the irrigation system. Several irrigation channels are set aside from Naryn and Karadarya.

In general, the natural conditions of the Ferghana region are favorable for the cultivation of cotton and other heat-loving crops, but the soil requires the use of appropriate agrotechnical measures.

Various minerals (oil, gas, sulfur, limestone, sand, etc.), as well as agricultural raw materials determine the development of many industries in the region. In terms of gross output, the Ferghana region is second after only to the Tashkent region. The region is located near the coal fields of Kyrgyzstan, where coal is partially imported.

Economy and its territorial organization. More than half of the total land Fund is suitable for agriculture. The main part of the acreage is irrigated land, the amount of rain fed land is insignificant. The development of agriculture is carried out by increasing yields, developing rain fed land, expanding the irrigation network and conducting reclamation activities. Agriculture of the Ferghana region specializes in cotton and sericulture. The area of cotton crops is 45% of the total area sown in the region. Wheat and barley are cultivated on rain fed and irrigated lands, and rice is sown in certain swampy areas of the Akhunbabaev and Altyaryk districts. In all areas, cotton crops alternate in rotation with alfalfa and corn crops.

Vegetables, melons and potatoes are grown mainly around industrial centers and working villages. To better meet the growing needs of the population and the processing industry, it is planned to expand the area for these crops and increase their productivity.

In the Ferghana region, conditions are favorable for the cultivation of orchards and vineyards. Ferghana pomegranates, figs and some special grape varieties are very famous.

In the foothills of the Ferghana region, natural pastures (dzhailau) occupy a significant area (more than in Andijan), but they have insufficient productivity. In this regard, sheep and goat breeding is being developed here for the production of meat and fat.

In cotton farms (thanks to corn, alfalfa and imported nutritious feeds, livestock farming is developing). These farms also produce silkworm cocoons. Especially developed the sericulture in Akhunbabaev and Kuva districts. The region produces about a quarter of the cocoons produced in Uzbekistan.

The industry of the region is multi-industry; a significant share of it is occupied by heavy industry. Enterprises of the oil refining, chemical and energy industries are among the most important in the Republic. Mechanical engineering, metalworking and production of construction materials are of great importance. On the basis of cotton growing and related branches of agriculture, light and food industries have emerged and are developing. The Ferghana and Altyaryk oil refineries produce such types of fuel as gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, as well as various technical oils. The entire industry of the region is mainly concentrated in the Ferghana-Margilan industrial district, as well as in the Kokand and Kuvasay industrial hubs

Ferghana region is well provided with rail and road transport. There are roads leading to the Railways in all districts. Cotton fiber and oil, silk and cotton fabrics, knitwear, dried fruits, canned goods, mineral fertilizers, and cement are exported from the regions. Timber, various cotton-growing equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, grain, flour, sugar, and consumer goods are imported from other regions to the Ferghana region.

Cities. Ferghana is an important transport hub, industrial and cultural center of the region. More than 30 large industrial enterprises operate in Ferghana. They are powered by electricity from the unified energy system. Currently, there are two thermal power plants using coal extracted in Kyzyl-Kiye. They supply energy to the United energy system of the country. The city has a cotton gin factory, synthetic fiber and gas plants, textile and fat-and-oil factories, a knitting factory and several clothing enterprises. Important enterprises of the chemical industry are plants of chemical fiber, nitrogen fertilizers and furan compounds

Canneries, dairies, bakeries and other large enterprises produce food products. The city is located at the foot of the Alai Mountains at an altitude of 580 m above ocean level. The city has a lot of water, as it is close to the mountains, so the summer is relatively cool here.

Industrial enterprises of the city and its residential buildings are provided with gas. According to the master plan, it is planned to expand the cities of Fergana, Margilan, Tashlak, Kirgili and merge them into a single city. The number of beautiful multi-storey residential buildings and administrative buildings will increase.

Margilan has long been known as the center of silk production. With the construction of the railway in Margilan, cotton gins and tanneries were established, as well as coconut dryers. Silk production increased, trade expanded, and the hereditary profession of the margilans - weaving - reached perfection.

Kokand is located in the West of the Ferghana region, at the intersection of transport routes. In terms of population and scale of industry, it is the leading (second) city in the region. In ancient times, at the beginning of the last century, there were only a few cotton gins, creameries and many craft workshops. In recent decades, the industry of Kokand has been comprehensively developed, and the city has become an important industrial hub.

The city has a cotton gin factory, processing raw cotton and mulberry cocoons, as well as oil and fat and hosiery-spinning mills, clothing and Shoe factories.

Kokand is an important transport hub. Railways and highways go from here to Tashkent, Namangan and Ferghana. The city is connected by road to all cities and regional centers of the valley.


Kuvasay - a young city of the Ferghana region-is located near Muyan mountain, on the right Bank of the Isfayram river. The city was created in 1954 on the site of a work settlement. Kuvasay is the center of the construction materials industry in the Ferghana economic district. The presence of rich deposits of limestone, marl, gypsum, various clays, and the proximity of the city to the Kyzylkian coal deposits allow expanding the production of construction materials and electricity. In Kuvasay, there is a plant that combines cement slate, lime and brick factories. This plant produces 1/4 of the cement produced throughout the country. The Kuvasai porcelain factory produces various types of national dishes - bowls, teapots, frogs, the production of which increases from year to year. Kuvasay street power plant, operating on coal Kyzylkiya connected with the grid area. The city is being rebuilt based on the master plan. The slopes of the Alai range, the Isfayram River, and many channels give the city a special charm. Kuvasai is surrounded by beautiful gardens and vineyards.

There are industrial and cottage industries in the villages of Chimion, Chuligulistan and Rishtan. People come to Chimion sanatorium for treatment from many regions of Uzbekistan and abroad.

Rishtan is a center of pottery production. Local raw materials are used to make household items: glasses, cups, bowls, pitchers, vases. The pottery handcrafters are united into a factory that produces more than 20 types of products.


The climate of the Ferghana region, as well as the entire valley, is continental. Winter is mild, sometimes severe. The average temperature in January is 3.2 °C (Ferghana), the absolute minimum is 25 °C. Snow cover is short-lived. On some winter days, the weather is warm. Summer is hot. The average temperature in July is + 28 °C, the maximum is + 42.4 °C. The adverse side of the climate conditions in the Western part of the region is strong winds that occur in the neck of the Ferghana valley in the Leninabad region. In spring, these winds sometimes dry up the surface layers of the soil, exposing the root system of young cotton and other plants. The force of the wind reaches 30 — 35 m per second.

On average, the Ferghana region has 42 windy days. Sometimes there are strong dust storms. As a rule, strong winds weaken as they move into the Eastern parts of the region. In July, the hot dry wind of garmsil often blows, especially in the Western part. There is little precipitation in the Ferghana region. Its Western and Central parts are particularly dry. The best humidification conditions are in the Eastern part, where the annual precipitation reaches 170 mm. In the foothills, precipitation increases to 270 mm, with an absolute maximum of 447 mm. Most precipitation occurs in spring.

The vegetation period in the region is 210-220 days a year; the sum of useful temperatures for the growing period is 4300-4700°C. The climate of the region is generally milder than that of the neighboring Syrdarya and Tashkent oases, which are open to Northern winds. The closed position of the Ferghana valley makes the weather generally stable; sometimes there are no sharp temperature drops even in winter. The climatic conditions of the Fergana region under the system of irrigated agriculture are favorable for the cultivation of cotton and other heat-loving crops.


The terrain of the Ferghana region is a plain that rises from West to East from 360 to 500 m, as well as from North to South from the Kokand-Margilan line towards the Alai range to 576 m near the city of Ferghana and 700-1200 m - in the foothills. The Northern part of the Ferghana region is occupied by the Karakalpak and Yazyavan steppe lands of Central Ferghana. It is covered with sand alternating with salt marshes. There are dunes to the South of the Tashkent-Andijan railway. The lands of Central Ferghana (Karakalpak steppe) in the South have been bordered by a strip of vast cones of river outflow flowing from the Alai range (Isfayramsay, Sokh, Isfara). Cones consist of sandy loam, loam and clay deposits. The flat part of the region in the South is bounded by a strip of adyrs with a height of 1000-1200 m, divided by deep river valleys. The foothills of the Alai range are cut by ravines and gorges, and there are longitudinal valleys between them. In the Ferghana region there are deposits of copper on the left Bank of the Syr Darya, on the territory of the Kirov district, oil (Chimion), sulfur (Shorsu), mineral springs (in the area of Altyaryk). The region is rich in various natural resources. There are large deposits of quartz, deposits of gold, silver, aluminum, copper, iron, tungsten, uranium, molybdenum, granite, coal, marble, and large reserves of oil and gas.

Water resources

The Ferghana region owns significant water reserves. The Syr Darya and smaller rivers – the Isfara, Sokh, Shakhimardansay and Isfayramsay – flow here, flowing down from the Alai range and not reaching the Syr Darya. Rivers are full of water and have flow modes that are convenient for watering fields. Maximum water consumption falls during the summer months. The Naryn River gives rise to the Great Ferghana, southern Ferghana, as well as the Great Andijan canal, and many other major irrigation highways that run through the region. Although the bulk of water falls on the Syr Darya, its moisture consumption from March to September is 47% of the annual flow. The Syr Darya riverbed is located well below the level of the Ferghana region, which makes it extremely difficult to remove irrigation channels from the river. Therefore, in recent years, Frunzen and Abdusamat pumping stations have been built on the Syr Darya coast, providing water to the fields of Frunzen and other districts. All named rivers, with the exception of the Sokha, are glacier-snow fed with two maximums of expenditure. Sokh – mainly glacial food. The largest amount of water these rivers carry during the melting of glaciers — in July and August. Large water runoff occurs from March to September-59% per year. In the Ferghana region, gray-earth and meadow-marsh soils predominate. Adyrs are occupied mainly by light and typical gray earth. On the terraces of the Syr Darya — alluvial-meadow soils. They are characterized by a high content of mineral nutrients and, if irrigated, have a high natural fertility. There are salt marshes.

Territorial and administrative division of the Ferghana


Ferghana Region

* Center – Ferghana city (population – 234.7 thousand people – 2010)
 * Territory - 6.76 thousand square km.

* Population - 3 316,8 thousand people (01.10.12)

Name of the district

Administrative center of the district





























































Cities of regional subordination















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